Based on our reading of literature. Young Y, Kwon S. The impact of intellectual property rights on access to medicines and disastrous spending. International Journal of Health Services 2015;45:507-529; Young Y, Kwon S. What is the impact of increased protection of intellectual property rights on domestic pharmaceutical spending? An analysis of OECD countries. International Journal of Health Services 2018;48:685-701; . Park W. Intellectual property rights and international innovation. In: Mascus K (Ed). The limits of the economy and globalization. Elsevier Science Vol 1:289-327.), supporting the thesis that a stronger intellectual life will lead to more pharmaceutical innovations or better health outcomes; That is why we did not look at the possibility in our analysis.
Follow-up studies carried out by the European Commission on the pharmaceutical sector survey (see Box 4.23) have shown that the number of patent comparisons that are problematic under EU cartel and abuse rules has decreased considerably in the years following the publication of the report. The third European Commission report on the control of patent applications in the pharmaceutical sector, published in July 2012, confirmed that, although the total number of comparisons concluded has increased considerably, the share of problematic comparisons for competition has stabilised, compared with 21% in the results of the sector survey. This shows that the Commission`s action has not prevented companies from making comparisons, contrary to the concerns expressed by some stakeholders in this regard. At the same time, the monitoring exercises were able to increase stakeholder awareness of competition issues in general, given the lower number of problematic comparisons11 the New Zealand Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Comprehensive and progressive agreement for the text of the Trans-Pacific Partnership. www.mfat.govt.nz/en/trade/free-trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements-concluded-but-not-in-force/cptpp/comprehensive-and-progressive-agreement-for-trans-pacific-partnership-text/. Access 14 Dec 2018. Analysis of trade statistics and tariffs on health-related products is difficult due to the lack of clear classification of health products in WTO agreements and in the harmonized system of description and codification of goods (SH) of the customs nomenclature (for the control of international trade). Many products, such as chemical ingredients, have end-use both medical and non-medical.
In the absence of a precise definition, this section deals with health products classified under 207 HS sub-positions (334 customs positions) for 139 countries. In total, this represents 50,000 tariff lines for each year studied. The main categories are marked in HS29 (labelled organic chemicals) and HS30 (pharmaceuticals). One of the restrictions of the data is that it does not reflect import and immediate re-export.